The town of Peñarroyas, located on the left bank of the Martín river, is currently a district of the municipality of Montalbán. It is still commonly known as Peñas Royas, due to the marked red color of the abrupt rocky crags that make up the sandstone formations, at the foot of which the town grew and which channel the Martín river and limit the town to the north. These Triassic sandstones (red sandstones of the Buntsandstein), popularly known as Rodeno, not only shape the landscape of the area but have also shaped the particular architecture of this town, which is well preserved while maintaining the traditional popular flavor. Peñarroyas offers us buildings in which the presence of well-worked ashlars and the abundance of viewpoints-sun terraces on the heights stand out.
On the other hand, the outcrops of Carboniferous materials to the south of the locality -the oldest in the Cultural Park-, also form part of the architecture, by taking advantage of the characteristic grayish-colored slabs that intermingled in some cases with the red sandstones in the constructions form beautiful contrasts. Of note are the abundance of small traditional constructions, popularly known as “cochiqueras “, used for raising and fattening pigs for the typical winter “matacías” (slaughtering), the mainstay of the family economy.
The main street is a continuation of the local road that runs from Montalbán into the town, but, given the narrowness of the buildings at its entrance, it does not allow vehicular traffic. The street follows the elevation marked by the contour line, so that the slopes are not significant, crossing the town in a northerly direction, following parallel to the course of the Martín river. On both sides of the street the construction grew, adapting the buildings to the terraces at the foot of the hillside on which the town sits. Most of them are three stories high. In the square are located the two most prominent buildings of Peñarroyas, the old town hall and the church of Santa María la Mayor.
The town hall has two floors and is made of masonry of odeno, preserving in the lower one the old commodities exchange with two semicircular arches on a central column, closed by carpentry and glasswork that have allowed to adapt its use at present for bar and social center. On the upper floor there are still two rooms where the old school of the town, now a museum, is located.
This building is attached to the church of Santa María La Mayor, and followed its construction typology, made of masonry. Although in the case of the church, it shows good masonry in the corners. This small, but at the same time coquettish temple shows to the square a simple semicircular doorway, over which there is a niche that must have presided over the patron saint of the temple. On top of this, an opening allows natural light to illuminate the interior of the church. A small tower rises on the side of the epistle and is also made of masonry and good ashlar masonry, forming two bodies, the lower one square with cornice and the upper one octagonal and with semicircular openings. In the upper part of the village are located the ashlar construction of the hermitage of Santa Bárbara.
After the square, the main axis bifurcates in two directions. On one side and continuing along the level, it extends in a path up to the traditional neighborhood of eras -The most common of these are cobblestones with slabs of odeno, configuring geometric and radioconcentric silhouettes around a central slab, and passing through the cave engravings of the Bolletes WellsThe path dies in the river at the height of a strait whose wells are named after the river. On the other side, the street dies after connecting at the height of an old peirón under the invocation of San Antonio Abad marking and indicating the direction, with a cobblestone roadway that helps us to ascend to the high of PortilloIt is the confluence of the trails to the neighboring towns -Obón and La Hoz de la Vieja- and a spectacular viewpoint that shows the outstanding richness of views and chromatic variety of the harmonious landscape of Peñarroyas and its surroundings.